Samarra

Samara nyɛla tiŋ titali mbe Iraq. Di zala Tigris nuzaa polo m-be saladin Governorate, di nyɛla kilomita kɔbiga ni pishi ni anu (125) m-be Baghdad nuzaa polo. Samarra tiŋa ŋɔ daa nyɛla Abbasid Caliph Al- Mumtasim ni daa kpa shɛli n-zaŋ Turkish linjimanima ban kalinli daa yiɣisi kalinli tuhupihita ban daa ti zooi n-lahi ka tariga. Yuuni 2003 puuni, tiŋa maa kalinli daa yiɣisi kamani kalinli 348,700. Iraq tɔbu la saha samarra daa nyɛla musulinsi adiini yaɣ'shɛli di ni boli sunna maa.

Samarra
The spiral minaret in Samarra.jpg
archaeological site, big city
Zuliya wuhibuسامراء Mali niŋ
TiŋaIraq Mali niŋ
Capital ofAbbasid Caliphate Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaSaladin Governorate Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli34°11′45″N 43°53′8″E Mali niŋ
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger Mali niŋ
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbani nahangbani kalinli34010 Mali niŋ
World Heritage soliWorld Heritage selection criterion (ii), World Heritage selection criterion (iii), World Heritage selection criterion (iv) Mali niŋ
Category for mapsCategory:Maps of Samarra Mali niŋ

TaarihiEdit

Bɛ daa kurigi la samarra kɔba yuuni 1911 mini 1914, Germani archeologist ŋun yuli booni Ernst Hersfeld. Samarra daa leei la luɣishɛli din gahim zaŋ ti Samarra kaya ni taada. Tum 1946 yuuni, karim bukunima, Sataranima, ni vihigu shɛli di ni daa niŋ ka be zaŋ wuhi salo ni anfooninima zaa nyɛla din be be ni boli binshɛli free Gallery of art din be Washinton, DC.

Biɛhigu ninnɛɛsim dindu maa daa nyɛla din chaŋ tooni n-dɔli Ubaid saha,din daa nyɛ tuuli tiŋa ka be Near East. Di yuui la yuma 5,500 BCE ka daa ti wurim yuuni 3,900 BCE ni.Yaha samarra tiŋ maa lahi nyɛla tiŋ shɛli din nye luɣ'shɛli shia musulinima ni laɣinda di yi ti niŋ ka bi chani ni bi ti kaai Kaaba du gahindili la. Gbala zaŋti Ali Al-Hadi mini Hassan Al-Askari bin daa pahiri pia ni yini (11) ni pinaayi (12) Imaamu nima. Lala luɣli ŋɔ nyɛla kasi sheei n zaŋti shiia musulinima.

Neo-Assyrian period

Tiŋa din be Sur-marrati (ŋun daa kpa li n-nyɛ Sennacherib 690 BC yuuni stele din be Walters Art Museum ni yɛli shɛm) di nyɛla di ni baŋ shɛli ni fortified Assyrian site din be al-Huwaysh m-be Tigris opposite modern Samarra. Tiŋa maa lahabaya din be Assyria Online m-baŋ ni Surimarrat n-nyɛ ti pumpɔŋɔ Samarra yaɣili[4].

Kurimbuni ha luɣ'shɛŋa yuya din nyɛ Samarra dini nyɛla Samarra Archaeological Survey nima ni yɛli ni di nyɛla shɛŋa n-nyɛ; Greek Souma (Ptolemy V.19, Zosimus III, 30), Latin Sumere, ni fort shɛli bɛ ni daa bɔli army of Julian tɔbu maa ni yuuni 363 AD (Ammianus Marcellinus XXV, 6, 4), ni Syriac Sumra (Hoffmann, Auszüge, 188; Michael the Syrian, III, 88), bɛ ni buɣisi shɛli tiŋkpaŋa maa.

Biɛhaŋ n-daa nyɛ li ni niriba pam ni niriba pam ka bɛ daa ti zaŋ chaŋ Qatul al-Kisrawi yoobu ni polo, Nahrawan Canal wulinluhili polo din daa nyari kɔm Tigris din be Samarra yaɣili, Yaqut al-Hamawi (Muʿjam, see under "Qatul") n-daa nyɛ di yuli n-ti Khosrau I (531–578). Ni bɛ wuhi bɛ suhipiɛlli zaŋ chaŋ project bee tuma maa naabu, commemorative tower (modern Burj al-Qa'im) daa nyɛla din mɛ n-zali was southern inlet south din be Samarra, ni nayili din mali "Alijanda" bee gooni din nyɛ piɛlli paaki daa nyɛla bɛ ni mɛ shɛli zali northern inlet (modern Nahr ar-Rasasi) maa puuni m-miri ad-Dawr. Ni supplementary canal, ni Qatul Abi al-Jund, Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid n-daa nyɛ ban mɛ li ka daa niŋ di suuna ka zaŋ li sɔŋ tiŋa ka di ŋmani regular octagon (modern Husn al-Qadisiyya), m-bɔli li al-Mubarak ka daa ti chɛ li bahi ka bɛ naai li yuuni796.

Abbasid CapitalEdit

 
Dirham of Al-Muntasir minted in Samarra, 861/862 AD

Yuuni 836 CE, Abbasid Toondana Al-Mu'tasim nima daa nyɛla ban nya tiŋ' zuɣu palli ka di be Tigris kpaŋsi. Nimaani ka o daa mɛ nayili karili din mali lɔɣalɔɣa pam ka ban guli o biɛhigu shɛhi pe n-gili o, sahashɛlikam, di nyɛla din waɣa ka che Asia Sunsuuni mini Iran (din daa mali milinsi n-nyɛ Turks maa, nti pahi Khurasani Ishtakhaniyya, Faraghina and Ushrusaniyya regiments) bee North Africa (kamani Maghariba nima). Hali saha shɛŋa bɛ tooi booni li mi Mamluk slave soldiers, bɛ yuya daa nyɛla din du ; Linjin'kpamba maa shɛba daa nyɛla ban dee yu'pahi din wuhiri kpaŋmaŋa.[2][3]

Tiŋa maa daa nyɛla din daa chaŋ tooni pahi Caliph al-Mutawakkil sulinsi saha, ŋun daa nyɛ ŋun gari tooni ka nayili karili din mali lɔɣalɔɣa maa mɛ, din nyɛ; as al-Mutawakkiliyya, nti pahi Samara Jiŋshɛli dintibigi mali di with spiral minaret din mali milinsi maa bee Malwiya, din daa mɛ yuuni 847. N-zaŋ ti o dapala al-Mu'tazz ŋun daa mɛ nayili karili Bulkuwara.

Samarra daa kpalim la caliph nima ya hali ni 892 yuuni, di ni daa niŋ ka al-Mu'tadid daa labi Baghdad. Tiŋa maa daa labi la nyaaŋa amaa ka daa na mali biɛla hali ni 10th century ni palimpalim.[4]

 
Remains of a large circular pool surrounded by reception halls in the Dar al-Khilafa palace, built by Al-Mu῾tasim (r. 833–842)[5]

Nestorian patriarch Sargis (860–72) nima daa vuui la patriarchal seat of the Dolodolo jɛmaduu dinbe wulunpuhili nima sani n-labisi Baghdad mini Samarra sunsuuni, nti pahi ban ku miri ni bɛ di o fali ninvuɣiyino bee niriba ayi gba daa naan tooi ʒini Samarra din ni tooi chɛ ka bɛ miri yaa kuɣu maa (seat of power).

Abbasid empire nima ni daa shee na yuui, Samarra daa nyɛla bɛ ni kuli che shɛli labi yuuni AD 940 piligu. Di daadam biɛligu daa nyɛla ban labi Baghdad ka tiŋa maa kuli shee tiŋa zaa. Di yaɣ'shɛli din daa saɣim pam kɔ m-pa nyɛ world metropolis of late antiquity din pa niŋ bayaana ni nimmohi n-ti archaeology.


Religious significanceEdit

 
Shrine of Al-Askari

Tiŋa ŋɔ lahi nyɛla yiŋa ti al-Askari buɣ'li din mali mausolea zaŋ ti Iimam Ali al-Hadi ni Hasan al-Askari, pia mini pia ni yini Shiʿi Iimama, din doli taba, niMuhammad al-Mahdi, bɛ ni mi so "Hidden Imam", di ni daa wuhi ni o chaŋ shɛli The Occultation ni dihitabili zaŋ chaŋ Twelver or Shias. Di che mi ka di kpa talahi jɛma sheei tiImami Shias. Yaha, Hakimah mini Narjis, Prophet Muhammad daŋ ban nyɛ paɣaba ni Limama nima , daa nyɛla Musulinima ni ti shɛli jilima, nyɛ bɛ ni soɣi shɛba ni, ka di zuɣu nyɛ ka nimaani leei talahi jɛma sheei.

Modern EraEdit

Eighteenth century maa puuni, tɔbu shɛli din daa mali futiina din nyɛ 1730–1735 Ottoman–Persian Tɔbu n-nyɛ; the Samara Tɔbu, din daa niŋ luɣ'shɛli ka niriba gari 50,000 Turks mini Persians leei ninvuɣikpima la. Lala niŋsim ŋɔ daa che mi ka Ottoman Iraq baŋ bɛ waɣilim tariga ka zaŋ ba niŋ Istanbul's suzerainty sulinsi ni hali ka Duniya zaa tɔbu din nyɛ tuuli daa ti niŋ maa (First World War).

20th century yuuni maa puuni, Samarra daa nyɛla ban nya daliri din lahi yɛn che ka bɛ kpa talahi , di ni daa niŋ ka bɛ nya permanent lake, Lake Tharthar daa nyɛla bɛ ni nam shɛli ka di nyɛla Samarra Barrage mɛbu ni, bɛ ni daa mɛ shɛli ni di tooi gu ka taɣi kɔ' kpɛɣu din kuli diri Baghdad maa. Tinkpan'nima pam daa nyɛla mɔɣili maa ni taɣi shɛba ʒi'shɛhi, din daa che ka niriba niŋ galisim Samarra's puuni.

Samarra tiŋ'shɛli din mali bukaata n-ti Saladin Governorate, yaɣ'shɛli din bi galisi zaŋ ti tiŋ' shɛli bɛ ni booni Sunni Triangle luɣishɛli insurgents ni daa be active Iraq TɔbuTmaa saha.

Di mini Samarra nyɛla niriba ni mi shɛli yɛla domini di Shi'i holy sites maa zuɣu, nti pahi tombsinima pam din nyɛ Shi'i Alifanima maa di ni, tiŋa maa daa pun nyɛla Buɣu' jɛmdi tiŋa town naɣila pumpɔŋɔ na zuɣu, ka Sunni Arabs naan yi pa nyɛ ban zooi di ni. Zabili daa nyɛla din yiɣisi Tensions Sunnis mini the Shi'a nima sunsuuni Iraq Tɔbu maa saha. February gɔli biɛɣu pishi ni ayi dali ( 22), yuuni 2006, the golden dome of the al-Askari Jiŋli daa nyɛla din bomped, di ni daa yiri saha shɛli rioting mini reprisal attacks zaŋ kpa tiŋa maa zaa polo din daa di ninvuɣ'gbaliŋ nyɛvuya . Za n gama yili laɣingu (organization ) n-daa kani n-ni tooi yɛli ni Bani n-daa che ka lala bompibu ŋɔ maa bompi. June gɔli biɛɣu pia ni ata (13) dali, yuuni 2007, insurgents bantuhuri gominanti daanyɛla ninvuɣ'shɛba banliri jiŋli maa yaha nti saɣim minarets dibaayi din daa flanki (flanked) dome's ruins maa.[6] July gɔli biɛɣu pia ni ayi (12) dali, yuuni 2007, binshɛɣu din wuhiri saha tower maa daa nyɛla din dabbi. Dansi diɛhibu daa ka bɛ lahabali churi puuni. Shiʿi cleric Muqtada al-Sadr daa nyɛla ŋun daa bɔli ni bɛ tɔ ayirimonima din mali suhudoo ka zaŋ dabaata mi kum bɛ suhugaribo kumsiand.[7] O daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli ni o dihi tabili Sunni Arab so ku tooi be lala lirigu shɛli din liriba ŋɔ maa nyaaŋa, di mini according to the New York Times daa yɛliya ni lala ban liriba ŋɔ maa daa nyɛla ban ŋmani Sunnis nima ban ban mali milinsi ni Al-Qaeda.[8] Jiŋli maa dundɔŋ mini minarets maa nyɛla din kpari zaya tum yuuni 2006 bompibu maa ni. daŋ duu din daa din ka naabu daa nyɛla din niŋ tiŋa maa, Iraq pirinsi n-daa niŋ ba lala daŋ duu ŋɔ.[9][10] Taarihi Iimam Dur Mausoleum, ŋun zaŋ o maŋa n-ti Muslim Qayshi bia Shi'i Gɔmnanti daa nyɛla bɛ ni daa wurim so.

Zaŋ na hali ni zuŋɔ, Iraqi civil Tɔbu ni naai yuuni 2007, Shia daadam biɛligu ban daa be tiŋa maa ni daa nyɛla ban zooi pahi ka di ka zaŋ buɣisi. Tɔ dinzuɣu, gadama nyɛla din tuɣi, ka bompinima n-kuli deeri luɣili kam yuuni 2011 mini 2013 puuni. June gɔli puuni, yuuni 2014, tiŋa maa daa nyɛla Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) nima ni liri shɛli din daa pahi Northern Iraq offensive[11] maa puuni. ISIL forces daa nyɛla ban gbaai yaɣili maa ya mini di University nima, amaa ka daa ti bahi li saha shɛli.[12]

Di Daanfaani Zanti AdiiniEdit

Tiŋa maa lahi nyɛla yiŋa zaŋ ti al-Askari Shrine, din mali mausolea n-ti limamanima Ali al-Hadi mini Hasan al-Askari, ban nyɛ tenth mini eleventh Shiʿi Afanima nangbanyini, nti pahi luɣ'shɛli Muhammad al-Mahdi ni yi shɛli na, bɛ ni mi shɛli "Hidden Imam", lahabali din daa yina ni bɛ kpe la buɣu jɛmdiba shɛba bɛ ni booni Twelver bee Shias. Dimbɔŋɔ nyɛla din daa che ka nimaani leei luɣ' shɛli Imami Shias nima ŋɔ ni chani shɛli ti jɛmdi Naawuni, ka di kpa talahi pam. Din lahi pahi, Hakimah mini Narjis, paɣaba ban nyɛ Anabi Muhammad daŋ nti pahi Afanima maa , daa nyɛla ban mali jilima pam Musulinima sani ka bɛ lahi simsiri ba di ni, ka che ka jiŋli maa nyɛ luɣ'shɛli din kpa talahi ni niriba niŋdi jama di ni.

Adiini anfaaniEdit

Tuuli, Adiini nyɛla binshɛɣʋ din nye jɛma bini n zaŋti daadam bii kam ŋʋn be duniya nyaaŋa zuɣʋ.

Adiini Mali anfaani Pam kadi anfaani nim galisi Pam ka ti yi yɛn yɛli di yetɔɣ' biɛɣu ni nɛɛti. Tɔ amaa di shɛŋa n-nye, biɛrisuŋ zaŋ chaŋ a daadam kpee polo, yaha dilahi nyɛla binsheɣʋ din che ka ti tabri sɔŋdi taba ti ʒiniɛlini, ka lahi che ka ti gbʋbti maŋa zaŋ chaŋ biɛhi yoshɛŋa din be ti yinsi ni ti fɔnani, din Lahi pahi nyɛla di che ka ti tiriti maŋ sabita ti biɛhisi ni, yaha ka lahi che ka ti mali dihitabli ni ti San kpe alizanda shɛli Naawuni ni yɛli ni o kpahisi zali wunti zɔriba, anfaani nim maa shɛli n Lahi nye di che ka ti tiring taba jilima biɛhugu puuni.#WHD

Tiŋgbani taɣibuEdit

Samara tiŋgbani taɣibu, tiŋgbani maa yuli n daa booni Kuybyshev ka bi ti taɣli ka di pa booni Samara.

Tulim mini maasim Din YuuraEdit

Samarra mali la hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). Wari saha ka saa tooi mira. Yuuni puni tulim galisim tooi nyɛla Tɛmplet:Convert. Ka maligim kamani Tɛmplet:Convert lura.

Climate data for Samarra
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
18.0
(64.4)
22.1
(71.8)
28.3
(82.9)
35.7
(96.3)
41.1
(106.0)
43.9
(111.0)
43.6
(110.5)
39.7
(103.5)
33.2
(91.8)
24.4
(75.9)
17.4
(63.3)
30.2
(86.4)
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
5.9
(42.6)
9.3
(48.7)
14.2
(57.6)
19.6
(67.3)
23.5
(74.3)
25.9
(78.6)
25.4
(77.7)
21.4
(70.5)
16.4
(61.5)
10.6
(51.1)
5.8
(42.4)
15.2
(59.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25
(1.0)
30
(1.2)
29
(1.1)
21
(0.8)
8
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(0.2)
20
(0.8)
34
(1.3)
127
(5.0)
Source: Tɛmplet:Url

taada din niŋ bayanaEdit

Zaŋ ŋmahim din be "m mali la ʒia ni n-ʒini Samarra puuni ", Wuhiri la kum, di nyɛla din nyɛ shɛhira zaŋ ti ancient Babylonian myth din daa yaai Babylonian Talmud puuni maa ka daa W. Somerset Maugham nyɛ ŋun transikribi li, di ni ka kum yɛri doo ni kpuɣi soli din tɔ ni o zaŋ o maŋa n-yiɣi yi Baghdad hali ni Samarra. Lahabali maa "The Appointment in Samarra" daa ti nyɛla din nam the germ of a novel din yuli daa lahi nyɛ John O'Hara. Lahabali maa nyɛla din yɛli "The Six Thatchers", puuni 2017 episode of Sherlock puuni.

Nyɛmikpe yahaEdit

Tɛmplet:Portal

Selected bibliographyEdit

  • De la Vaissière, Étienne (2007): Samarcande et Samarra. Élites d’Asie central dans l’empire abbaside (Studia Iranica, Cahier 35), Paris.
  • Takɔbiri Tuhuli wurimbu
  • Northedge, Alastair (2005): The historical topography of Samarra, London.
  • Robinson, Chase (ed.) (2001): A Medieval Islamic City Reconsidered: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Samarra (Oxford Studies in Islamic Art 14). Oxford.

External linksEdit

Tɛmplet:Wikivoyage

KundivihiraEdit

1."Orta Doğu'da kurulan ilk Türk şehri: Samarra" Fikriyat Gazetesi (in Turkish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.

2. UNESCO, Samarra Archaeological City, https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/276

3. "Unesco names World Heritage sites" BBC News. 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2010-05-23.

4. SAAO

5. Stanley A. Freed, "Research Pitfalls as a Result of the Restoration of Museum Specimens", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 376, The Research Potential of Anthropological Museum Collections, pages 229–245, December 1981. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1981.tb28170.x

6. Babaie, Sussan (2004). Slaves of the Shah. New York: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd. pp. 4 –5. ISBN 1-86064-721-9.

7. Blair, Sheila S.; Bloom, Jonathan M. (1995). "Samarra" The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300064650.

8. Mari, 80–1 (Arabic), 71–2 (Latin)

9. Thomas E. Ricks (6 January 2010). The Gamble: General Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq Penguin Publishing Group. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-101-19206-1.

10. "Explosion Topples Minarets At Iraqi Shi'ite Shrine" RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2015-08-22.

11. John F. Burns; Jon Elsen (2007-06-14). "Several Mosques Attacked, but Iraq Is Mostly Calm - New York Times" The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-22.

12. Qassim Abdul-Zahra (June 13, 2007). "Iraqi police say famous shrine attacked" Associated Press.

13. "Blast hits key Iraq Shia shrine" BBC. 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2012-04-21.

14. Hassan, Ghazwan (5 June 2014). "Iraq dislodges insurgents from city of Samarra with airstrikes" Reuters. Retrieved 27 June 2014.

15. "The Appointment in Samarra" (as retold by W. Somerset Maugham [1933]).

16. John O'Hara, Appointment in Samarra, Harcourt, Brace & Co., . L., "The Destined Hour" in From Many Times and Lands (London, 1953); reprinted in Every Poem Tells a Story: A Collection of Stories in Verse, ed. Raymond Wilson (London, 1988; ISBN 0-670-82086-5 / 0-670-82086-5).

  1. UNESCO, Samarra Archae
  2. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/27/276
  3. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6248244.stm
  4. http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/saao/cbd/qpn/qpn.x030705.html
  5. ^ Stanley A. Freed, "Research Pitfalls as a Result of the Restoration of Museum Specimens", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 376, The Research Potential of Anthropological Museum Collections, pages 229–245, December 1981. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1749-6632.1981.tb28170.x
  6. https://archive.org/details/slavesshahneweli00baba
  7. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780300064650
  8. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samarra#cite_ref-8
  9. https://books.google.com/books?id=gHMJCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT3
  10. http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1077098.html
  11. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/14/world/middleeast/14cnd-iraq.html?pagewanted=all
  12. https://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070613/ap_on_re_mi_ea/iraq
  13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6747419.stm
  14. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samarra#cite_ref-15
  15. ^ "The Appointment in Samarra" (as retold by W. Somerset Maugham [1933]).
  16. ^ John O'Hara, Appointment in Samarra, Harcourt, Brace & Co., . L., "The Destined Hour" in From Many Times and Lands (London, 1953); reprinted in Every Poem Tells a Story: A Collection of Stories in Verse, ed. Raymond Wilson (London, 1988; ISBN 0-670-82086-5 / 0-670-82086-5)

Neo Assyrian sahaEdit

  1. Stanley A. Freed, "Research Pitfalls as a Result of the Restoration of Museum Specimens", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 376, The Research Potential of Anthropological Museum Collections, pages 229–245, December 1981. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1981.tb28170.x.
  2. Babaie, Sussan; Conference on Iranian Studies (2nd : 1998 : Bethesda, Md ) (2004). Slaves of the Shah : new elites of Safavid Iran. Library Genesis. London ; New York : I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-721-5.
  3. Babaie, Sussan; Conference on Iranian Studies (2nd : 1998 : Bethesda, Md ) (2004). Slaves of the Shah : new elites of Safavid Iran. Library Genesis. London ; New York : I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-721-5.
  4. König, Daniel G. (2015-11-01), "Arabic-Islamic Records on Latin-Christian Europe", Arabic-Islamic Views of the Latin West, Oxford University Press, pp. 1–26, retrieved 2022-12-15
  5. Blair, Sheila S.; Bloom, Jonathan M. (1995). "Samarra". The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300064650.
  6. Ricks, Thomas E. (2010-01-06). The Gamble: General Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq (in English). Penguin. ISBN 978-1-101-19206-1.
  7. http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1077098.html
  8. Burns, John F.; Elsen, Jon (2007-06-14). Tɛmplet:Citation/make link (en-US). The New York Times. Tɛmplet:Citation/identifier. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/14/world/middleeast/14cnd-iraq.html.
  9. https://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070613/ap_on_re_mi_ea/iraq
  10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6747419.stm
  11. Tɛmplet:Citation/make link (en-GB). 2007-06-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6747419.stm.
  12. Tɛmplet:Citation/make link (en). Reuters. 2014-06-05. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iraq-security-idUSKBN0EG1RG20140605.